The Spectrum Collection
The 2320 compounds in the SPECTRUM Collection were selected by medicinal chemists and biologists so as to provide a wide range of biological activities and structural diversity for screening programs with special emphasis on the de-novo assays emerging today. Such content provides the opportunity to evaluate drugs and biochemical tools with known biological profiles and, at the same time, explore the potential of novel structural and topographical diversity manifest in pure natural products. Each compound has a minimum of 95% purity.
The Drug Components (60%)
Drugs are defined according to the name designations as set forth in the USP Dictionary of USAN and International Drug Names (2005, US Pharmacopeia). Included are USP (US Pharmacopeia), USAN (US Adopted Name), INN (International Non-proprietary Name), BAN (British Approved Name), and JAN (Japanese Accepted Name) designations. Drugs that have been introduced in the US (1280 compounds with USAN/USP designations) predominate. Also included are 320 drugs that are limited in use to Europe (INN & BAN) and Japan (JAN). While most of these are off-patent, we have endeavored to include the more recent “blockbuster” drugs which are still covered by active patents in the United States. These, which constitute approximately 2% of the drugs in the Collection are isolated in our laboratory from the patent holder’s or their assigned manufacturer’s product. In this situation, patents rights have been extinguished, and the independent sale of the compound is without restriction. The use of such compounds, as purchased from MDSI by a customer, is similarly permitted for research purposes. No rights to any of these drugs or discoveries made with them are retained by MDSI or others. We do not place restrictions or invoke intellectual property issues in the use of our reference compounds.
Most of these drugs are synthetic or at least semi-synthetic in origin, although approximately 5% are naturally occurring. The pharmacological and toxicological profiles of these drugs have been defined and published. They serve to reflect the impact of their primary therapeutic activity in your assay system, but also to provide the opportunity of uncovering a previously unknown property that may lead to ‘new use” development with supporting toxicological data.
The Natural Products (25%)
The remainder of the SPECTRUM collection includes 640 additional pure natural products with unknown biological properties, which are derived from natural sources worldwide. Many of these are isolated and purified in our laboratories or those of our affiliates, Gaia Chemical Corporation and Planta Analytica LLC. These compounds are selected on the basis of chemical class and structural diversity.
Other Bioactive Components (15%)
Representatives of non-drug enzyme inhibitors, receptor blockers, membrane active compounds, and cellular toxins are provided in the SPECTRUM collection. Many of these 420 compounds have either not reached development or been dropped for toxicological or other reasons. Also included are representatives of marketed pesticides and herbicides for comparative purposes. These diverse compounds are important assets in defining the scope of your assay and, once again, may reflect an unforeseen activity.
References to the use of the Spectrum Collection
- DA Kocisko, GS Baron, R Rubenstein, J Chen, S Kuizon, B Caughey, New Inhibitors of Scrapie-Associated Prion Protein Formation in a Library of 2,000 Drugs and Natural Products, J Virology 77: 10288 (2003).
- C Weissmann, A Aguzzi, Approaches To Therapy Of Prion Diseases, Ann Rev Med 56: 321 (2005).
- H Sun, X Liu, Q Xiong, S Shikano and M Li, Chronic Inhibition of Cardiac Kir2.1 and hERG Potassium Channels by Celastrol with Dual effects on Both Ion Conductivity and Protein Trafficking, J Biol Chem 281:5877 (2006)
- JL Weisman, AP Liou, AA Shelat, FE Cohen, RK Guy and JL DeRisi, Searching for New Antimalarial Therapeutics amongst Known Drugs, Chem Biol & Drug Design, 67:409 (2006)
- M Stallings-Mann, L Jamieson, RP Regala, C Weems, NR Murray and AP Fields, A Novel Small-Molecule Inhibitor of Protein Kinase C Blocks Transformed Growth of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cells, Cancer Research 66:1767 (2006)
Note: The components of the SPECTRUM Collection are also available individually as separate collections, specifically as the GenPlus, NINDS-II, NatProd, Killer, Cancer, and Agro plates.